Depression is common for individuals living with Alzheimer’s Disease. Up to half of those living with the disease experience signs of depression, compared to about 7% for the general public. This higher occurrence is attributed to the neurological changes caused by the disease and the emotional distress accompanying its diagnosis.
At NursePartners, we offer professional assistance and support in the familiar surroundings of home. We have extensive expertise working with Alzheimer’s patients; our entire team is committed to delivering personalized care that prioritizes comfort and well-being.
In this article, we explore the correlation between Alzheimer’s disease and depression and provide insights on addressing suspected depression in your loved one.
Depression Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease
Detecting depression in individuals with Alzheimer’s poses a challenge due to overlapping symptoms. Cognitive decline may further limit their ability to articulate emotions and recognize depression symptoms. Furthermore, depression may present differently in Alzheimer’s patients.
They may not explicitly express a depressed mood but instead exhibit nonspecific symptoms, including:
- Loss of appetite
- Unexplained and unresponsive pain
Signs that may indicate depression in individuals with Alzheimer’s include:
- Frequent use of medical services and office visits
- Persistent reports of fatigue and pain
- Changes in sleep patterns and appetite
- Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms
- Social isolation
- Increased dependency
Depression symptoms in Alzheimer’s patients may also be less severe, with fluctuating durations and intensity.
What is the Connection Between Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease?
Although depression is not a diagnostic criterion for Alzheimer’s disease, some research suggests that there is a relationship between the two conditions. Depression often occurs during the early and middle stages of Alzheimer’s. Approximately three-quarters of individuals with Alzheimer’s also experience significant depression, which may worsen the prognosis and accelerate disease progression.
While some individuals with Alzheimer’s also have depression, it remains unclear whether depression is a risk factor, an early symptom, or a reaction to the cognitive decline experienced in Alzheimer’s. Some researchers have proposed a reciprocal relationship between the two conditions. Moreover, individuals with mental health disorders, including depression, have up to four times the risk of developing dementia or other neurodegenerative diseases later in life.
Depression can serve as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline and the progression of Alzheimer’s, even up to 20 years after receiving a depression diagnosis.
A 2019 review elucidated how depression may contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s by highlighting shared neurobiological features such as neuroinflammation, cerebrovascular disease, and neurodegeneration. These factors lower the threshold for Alzheimer’s presentation in the brain.
Diagnosing Depression in Alzheimer’s Patients
Diagnosing depression in individuals with Alzheimer’s can be challenging since the symptoms often overlap. There is no single test to detect depression in Alzheimer’s disease, and a comprehensive evaluation by a skilled healthcare professional is necessary.
The assessment typically includes the following steps:
- A thorough review of the individual’s medical history
- Physical and mental examinations
- Interviews with family members
Some individuals with depression in Alzheimer’s may not meet the full criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, text revision. Separate guidelines exist for diagnosing depression in individuals with Alzheimer’s.
To diagnose depression in Alzheimer’s, a person must exhibit a depressed mood or decreased pleasure in usual activities, along with at least two of the following symptoms:
- Withdrawal or social isolation
- Changes in sleep patterns
- Changes in appetite
- Agitation or slowed behavior
- Fatigue or loss of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness, guilt, or excessive guilt
- Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
How to Treat Depression in Alzheimer’s
Treating depression in Alzheimer’s often involves a combination of medication, therapy, and adjustments to daily life. Medications commonly prescribed for depression include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Non-pharmacological approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can also be beneficial.
Other non-medical interventions for depression in Alzheimer’s may include:
- Joining support groups
- Establishing a predictable daily routine
- Planning and engaging in enjoyable activities
- Assisting with daily tasks
Furthermore, certain activities can provide comfort and reassurance to individuals with dementia and depression, including:
- Regular physical activity
- One-on-one interactions with others
- Participating in group activities, such as reminiscence and life story activities
- Modifying the environment by reducing clutter and minimizing bright lights and loud noises
If you notice symptoms of depression or any changes in behavior in your loved one with Alzheimer’s, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional.
Frequently Asked Questions
What stage of Alzheimer’s is depression?
Depression can occur at different stages of Alzheimer’s disease, with a higher incidence observed during the early and middle stages.
How prevalent is depression in Alzheimer’s patients?
The prevalence of depression in individuals with Alzheimer’s is significant, affecting approximately 40 to 50 percent of patients. This prevalence is notably higher than in the general population, where the incidence of depression is around 7 percent.
Are there any similarities between Alzheimer’s disease and Major Depressive Disorder?
Alzheimer’s disease and Major Depressive Disorder share similar symptoms. Both conditions may manifest as apathy, social withdrawal, and impaired thinking. Additionally, the cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer’s can hinder the expression of emotions typically seen in major depressive disorder.
Impact of Alzheimer’s disease on mental health
Alzheimer’s disease has a substantial impact on mental health. The progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s can give rise to various mental health challenges, including depression, anxiety, agitation, and behavioral changes. Cognitive decline may also affect individuals’ self-awareness of their mental health symptoms.
Professional Nurse Care in Philadelphia, Delaware, and Montgomery Counties
Thinking about the well-being and personal care of your aging loved ones can be daunting. But with NursePartners by your side, you can rely on our team of experienced private certified nursing assistants to provide exceptional support while preserving their dignity and addressing their medical needs. Our team also includes a dementia coach, trainer, and practitioner. NursePartners is proud to be the only company in Pennsylvania to be considered a dementia certified organization by Teepa Snow’s Positive Approach, LLC.
At NursePartners, our caring team assists individuals with personal hygiene, recognizing the importance of maintaining their dignity throughout the process. Moreover, they possess extensive training to deliver comprehensive medical care, ensuring that your loved ones receive the highest level of attention and support they deserve.